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20th World Congress on Heart Disease

 

 

 


Invited Speaker Presentations at the
20th World Congress on Heart Disease
Annual Scientific Sessions 2015
Vancouver, BC, Canada

(click on the photo to view the video)



  CARDIOLOGY ONLINE NEWS


 
20th WORLD CONGRESS ON HEART DISEASE

EVOLUTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LOW RISK PATIENTS PRESENTING TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT WITH CHEST PAIN
Amsterdam
Ezra A. Amsterdam, M.D., University of California (Davis) Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA

The majority of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain comprise a low risk population who do not have acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or other life threatening condition. Therefore, most at are low risk for morbidity and mortality. Such low risk patients are usually identified by absence of a history of cardiovascular disease, normal or nonischemic ECG, normal initial troponin, and clinical stability. MORE»

THE ROLE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY IN CHRONIC HEART VALVE DISEASES
Borer
Jeffrey S. Borer, M.D., SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn and New York, NY, USA

Valvular heart diseases (VHDs) are progressive. When they are “primary”, i.e., due to intrinsic abnormality of valve structure and not secondary to comorbid conditions (e.g., ischemia), they generally are characterized by long asymptomatic phases during which cardiac functional and hemodynamic debility progresses. Ultimately, these developments lead to symptoms, other morbidities and, finally, death. MORE»

 

THE 2014 AF GUIDELINES: WHAT'S NEW?
Cain
Michael E. Cain, M.D., University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA

The 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are derived from published clinical trials, basic science, and comprehensive review articles. They supersede the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines and two subsequent focused updates from 2011. Key new recommendations impacting patient care are: MORE»

MANAGEMENT OF ASYMPTOMATIC AORTIC STENOSIS: WHAT IS NEW IN 2015?
Chaliki
Hari P. Chaliki, M.D., Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA

Calcific aortic stenosis is now the primary etiology of aortic stenosis in the majority of patients. Risk factors such as hyperlipidemia play an important role in the progression of aortic stenosis. According to the most recent ACC/AHA guidelines, peak velocity greater than 4 m/sec, or a mean gradient of more than 40 mmHg and a valve area of less than 1.0 cm2 is considered hemodynamically severe aortic stenosis. MORE»

 

EVOLVING UNDERSTANDING OF STRESS CARDIOMYOPATHY
Chokslingam
Anand Chockalingam, M.D., Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA

Stress cardiomyopathy (SC), also called Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is increasingly diagnosed world over. ER physicians, Internists, Intensivists and anesthesiologists increasingly encounter SC patients presenting with angina, heart failure or arrhythmia. MORE»

LEFT VENTRICULAR REVERSE REMODELING WITH BIVENTRICULAR VERSUS RIGHT VENTRICULAR PACING IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK AND LEFT HEART FAILURE IN THE BLOCK HF TRIAL
Curtis
Anne Curtis, M.D., University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA

Background: In patients with heart failure (HF), biventricular pacing (BIV) attenuates adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in addition to improving survival and relieving symptoms. However, little is known about the effects of BIV pacing in HF patients with atrioventricular (AV) block. MORE»

 

 

CO2-ENRICHED WATER BATH AS A NOVEL THERAPY FOR PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE
Dhalla
Narajan Dhalla, Ph.D., M.D. Hon., ICS, St. Boniface Hospital Research, University of Manitoba, Canada

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a major health problem whereby narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to the ischemic limbs. We investigated the effects of CO2-enriched water bath (CEWB) therapy on blood flow in the ischemic hind limb. MORE»

WHOLE EXOME SEQUENCING FOR THORACIC AORTIC ANEURYSM: THE FUTURE IS HERE
Elefteriades
John A. Elefteriades, M.D., Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Background: Convincing evidence is accumulating that genetics play an important etiologic role in thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Multiple genes have been found to cause syndromic and familial TAAD. MORE»

 

A LARGE PRAGMATIC TRIAL OF STATINS IN PRIMARY PREVENTION: THE NEXT FRONTIER
Farkouh
Michael Farkouh, M.D., Cardiac Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Atherothrombotic disease is the most common cause of death in the world. Pharmacologic LDL lowering has been shown to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) events according to the LDL level achieved with no demonstrated level below which events do not decrease with additional LDL lowering. Further, available data suggest that the earlier the LDL lowering occurs, the greater the therapeutic effect of a given decrease. MORE»

C-REACTIVE PROTEIN MODULATION OF INFLAMMATION IN ACUTE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
Filep
Janos G. Filep, M.D., University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant and an active regulator of innate immunity. Clinical studies have shown that elevated baseline serum CRP levels confer, albeit to varying degrees, additional prognostic value for future coronary artery disease (CAD) and death and may be useful for risk-guided therapy. CRP has been implicated in multiple aspects of atherogenesis and acute CAD; however, whether CRP plays a direct causal role in these events remains controversial. MORE»

 

THE SECRET SUPREMACY OF SMALL BLOOD VESSELS, AN ENDURING PUZZLE OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: RESEARCH GAPS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Gallis
Zorina S. Gallis, Ph.D., National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA

Small blood vessels are a critical component of the vascular system and essential for the maintenance and proper functioning of organs throughout the body. Their malfunction is a major contributor to local and systemic diseases. MORE»

SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF DUAL MOTION ROTATIONAL CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY
Garcia
Joel A. Garcia, M.D., Orlando Health, Orlando, FL, USA

Background: Cardiac catheterization via standard angiography (SA) requires several angiograms while rotational coronary angiography (RA) employs the use of automated gantry acquisitions (LAO to RAO with a fixed cranial or caudal angulation) permitting complete visualization of the entire coronary tree via two injections of the left (LCA) (cranial and caudal) and one of the right coronary tree (RCA). MORE»

 

CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF THERAPEUTIC T3 TREATMENT IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION
Gerdes
A. Martin Gerdes, Ph.D, Dept of Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology-College of Osteopathic Medicine, USA

Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI) leads to cardiac tissue hypothyroidism, a condition that by itself can lead to heart failure (HF). Potential improvements in LV remodeling and function with a therapeutic T3 dose after MI and ischemia/reperfusion (IR) are not clear. MORE»

WHAT DIABETES MELLITUS HAS TAUGHT US ABOUT POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR SMALL ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS
Gertz
S. David Gertz, M.D., Ph.D, The Hebrew University--Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

Increased detection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) at early stages of growth (more than 80% of those diagnosed now are less than 3.5 cm maximum diameter), and the high rate of severe complications of urgent, open abdomen or endovascular surgical treatment have emphasized the need for less invasive strategies that target the pathogenetic mechanisms of progression and rupture. MORE»

 

CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO THREATFUL CHALLENGES IN PERSONS WITH HIGH TRAIT ANXIETY
Jezova
Daniela Jezova, M.D., Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

An optimal cardiovascular response to threatening challenges is indispensable for coping with the situation. Anxiety disorders and high anxiety as a personality trait have been expected to be associated with autonomic lability and hyperreactivity during stress. MORE»

ADVANCED IMAGING FOR STRUCTURAL HEART DISEASE INTERVENTIONS
Jilaihawi
Hasan Jilaihawi, M.D., Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

MORE»

 

BEYOND THE GUIDELINES - NEW OPTIONS FOR TREATING HEART FAILURE IN 2015
Johnson
Maryl R. Johnson, M.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

The updated ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure is not even 2 years old, however, trials have suggested new potential treatment options for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Two of these trials will be reviewed. MORE»

ADJUDICATED VERSUS ADMINISTRATIVE HEART FAILURE WITH PRESERVED EJECTION FRACTION
Kalogeropoulos
Andreas Kalogeropoulos, M.D., Ph.D., Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with readmission and mortality rates similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). No disease-modifying therapy for HFpEF exists to date, partially because of the multifactorial pathophysiology of HFpEF and the heterogeneity of patients. MORE»

 

POINT OF CARE ULTRASOUND, THE NEW PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
Kedan
Ilan Kedan, M.D., Cedars Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Background: Ultrasound technology has become a central part of modern day healthcare. Its use as a clinical tool will continue to expand as the technology becomes more portable. MORE»

 

HYBRID ATRIAL FIBRILLATION FOR ADVANCED ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
Khoynezhad
Ali Khoynezhad, M.D., Ph.D., Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with a nearly five-fold increased risk for stroke as well as over two-fold increased risk of death. For symptomatic drug-refractory AF, percutaneous ablation has been used with good success in paroxysmal AF. MORE»

 

BODY MASS INDEX AND MORTALITY IN A VERY LARGE COHORT: IS IT REALLY HEALTHIER TO BE OVERWEIGHT?
Klatsky
Arthur L. Klatsky, M.D., Northern CA Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA, USA

Purpose: To study risk of death in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 273,843 free-living persons. Background: Despite substantial published literature controversy persists about the optimal level of body weight. MORE»

 

 

AGING, ESTROGEN, CELL SENESCENCE AND VASCULAR INFLAMMATION
Knowlton
Anne Knowlton, M.D., University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Aging is characterized by the development of systemic inflammatory changes, organ dysfunction and frailty. In females, loss of estrogen compounds these changes. MORE»

 

CURRENT STATUS OF INTRAVASCULAR IMAGING
Koshy
Santhosh Koshy, M.D., University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

Currently available intravascular imaging techniques that are used in clinical practice, have major limitations related to resolution and ease of imaging. There have been major innovations in the field of imaging to improve on these limitations and to incorporate novel imaging techniques that venture beyond the traditional delineation of anatomical intravascular structures. MORE»

 

ALTERED NUCLEAR AND CYTOSKELETAL MECHANICS IN CARDIAC MYOCYTES WITH D192G NUCLEAR LAMIN MUTATION
Long
Carlin S. Long, M.D., University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA

Atomic force microscopy whole-cell loading/unloading curves were used to study the mechanical behavior of cardiomyocytes carrying the LMNA D192G mutation which is known to cause a severe form of dilated cardiomyopathy. MORE»

 

COLCHICINE AND NEW MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR ACUTE AND RECURRENT PERICARDITIS
Lopachuk
Gary D. Lopaschuk, Ph.D., University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

In heart failure, changes in cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism contribute to this contractile dysfunction and to a decrease in cardiac efficiency. The failing heart has defects in energy metabolic processes that compromise ATP production necessary to maintain contractile function. MORE»

 

ATHEROSCLEROSIS, CANCER AND WOUND HEALING; THE SYSTEMS BIOLOGY CONNECTION
Lucas
Alexandra R. Lucas, M.D., Department Medicine, Division Cardiology, University of Florida, USA

Serpins have critical regulatory roles in coagulation, inflammatory, and apoptosis, representing a large percentage of circulating proteins. Genetic serpin mutations cause severe disorders such as deficiency in alpha1 antitrypsin and neuroserpin or in sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. MORE»

 

 

 

 

 

 

  CARDIOLOGY ONLINE NEWS


 
20th WORLD CONGRESS ON HEART DISEASE

NAVIGATING THE COMPLEXITIES OF APOPTOSIS AND AUTOPHAGY IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: CAN WE CHART A CLEAR COURSE?
Maiese
Kenneth Maiese, M.D., University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA

The programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy play a significant role in the reparative and regenerative processes of the cardiovascular system. Apoptosis can control tissue development and remodeling during the early stages of development. MORE»

EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM - THE NANOMEDICAL EVALUATION OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION
Malinski
Tadeusz Malinski, M.D., Rudek Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA

Background: Endothelial dysfunction can be directly related to the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system. The dysfunctional endothelium is characterized, among others, by the deficiency of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) and excess production of cytotoxic superoxide (O2-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) – the main components of oxidative stress. MORE»

 

 

REOPERATIVE CARDIAC SURGERY IN ADULT CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE PATIENTS
Mora
Bassem N. Mora, M.D., Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

Objectives: To discuss the spectrum of anomalies which require reoperative cardiac surgery in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patient. Background: There are >1,000,000 ACHD patients in North America. Cardiac surgery in those is divided into cases involving great complexity MORE»

 

NOVEL BIOMARKERS OF LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM
Mora
Samia Mora, M.D., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in individuals with low LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c). We investigated whether detailed measures of LDL subfractions and other lipoproteins can be used to assess CVD risk in a population with both low LDL-c and high C-reactive protein that was randomized to high-intensity statin or placebo. MORE»

 

THE ROLE OF MICRORNAS IN PERIPARTUM CARDIOMYOPATHY
Nair
Nandini Nair, M.D., Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA, USA

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in young women during their reproductive years. The presentation is usually in the month preceding delivery up to 5 weeks post-partum. MORE»

 

 

REGULATION OF INTESTINAL GENES BY AN ORAL PEPTIDE REDUCES SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION AND ATHEROGENESIS
Navab
Mohamad Navab, Ph.D., David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

A high fat, high cholesterol diet (Western diet, WD) increases the levels of the potent growth promoter unsaturated lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in small intestine and plasma of LDLR-/- mice. Supplementing mouse chow with unsaturated LPA produced dyslipidemia and inflammation. WD increased the expression of the genes Acadl, Acot1 and Angptl4 while reducing that of Reg3g. MORE»

GENE-TARGETING OF NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE RECEPTOR-A ENHANCES THE EXPRESSION OF RAAS COMPONENTS LEADING TO INFLAMMATORY HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE
Pandey
Kailesh N. Pandey, Ph.D., Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was discovered over 30 years ago in the atrium of heart and has been extensively investigated with regard to physiology, pathophysiology, and cardiovascular disease therapeutics. MORE»

MISCONCEPTIONS AND DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN BIOPROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBOSIS
Pislaru
Sorin V. Pislaru, M.D., Ph.D., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis (BPVT) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication. In a review of the Mayo Clinic experience we found that BPVT was systematically under-reported on TTE, and that most cases occurred late post-implantation. MORE»

EXERCISE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Prokudina
Maria Prokudina, M.D., Ph.D., Federal North-West Medical Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia

The presentation will describe the advantages and disadvantages of exercise echocardiography (Ex Echo) for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Advantages and benefits of Ex Echo are the following: 1. Accuracy and availability; MORE»

TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE THROMBOSED PROSTHETIC HEART VALVE
Rahimtoola
Shabuddin H. Rahimtoola, M.D., University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

A systematic review of the literature from 1996 -2012 revealed 9 studies with 48 patients with tricuspid OT PHV in whom thrombolytic therapy was successful in 88%. For left sided OT PHV, 17 studies comprising 756 patients had received thrombolytic therapy (TT) and in 13 studies comprising 662 patients had received surgical therapy (ST). MORE»

LIPID LOWERING IN PATIENTS WITH MILD AORTIC STENOSIS AND ELEVATED LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN: THE SEAS STUDY
Rajamannan
Nalini M. Rajamannan, M.D., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

Aims: To examine if pretreatment low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels and aortic stenosis (AS) severity alter the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy in AS patients. Methods and Results: Asymptomatic patients with AS randomized (1:1) to 40 mg Simvastatin + 10 mg Ezetimibe combination vs. placebo and =2 echocardiograms in the SEAS trial. MORE»

DIAGNOSTIC TRICKS AND TIMELY TREATMENT OF AORTIC INTRAMURAL HEMATOMA
Reddy
Hanumanth K. Reddy, M.D., St. Louis University Medical School, St. Louis, MO, USA

Aortic intramural hematoma is a variant of acute aortic syndrome with a presentation similar to that of acute aortic dissection but difficult to make a timely diagnosis. This entity may be easily missed because of the absence of the intimal flap often seen in classical dissection. MORE»

RELAXIN, A POTENTIAL THERAPY FOR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
Salama
Guy Salama, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Relaxin, a hormone of reproduction and has been identified as an insulin-like peptide with pleiotropic actions throughout the body including important cardiovascular actions. We recently demonstrated that Relaxin suppresses atrial fibrillation (AF) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) hearts by remodeling the extracellular matrix, modulating cardiac ion channels and reducing cell hypertrophy. MORE»

PRO-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MAST CELLS IN OBESITY AND DIABETES
Shi
Guo-Ping Shi, SC.D., D.SC., Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Mast cells contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Deficiency or pharmacological inactivation of mast cells protects mice from these metabolic diseases. This study demonstrates that leptin deficiency slants otherwise pro-inflammatory mast cells toward anti-inflammatory functions. MORE»

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY: DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC VALUE
Sozzi
Fabiola B. Sozzi, M.D., Ph.D., Cardiology Unit, Policlinico Hospital, Milan, Italy

Coronary multislice computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being used as a tool for non-invasive visualization of the coronary arteries (1). The technique provides information on atherosclerotic plaque burden and to some extent on plaque composition. The diagnostic value of coronary CT scan is high. MORE»

CHOLESTEROL GOALS & TARGETS: SHOULD WE IMPROVE IT?
Sperling
Laurence Sperling, M.D., Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

Appropriate intensity statins are recommended by the ACC/ AHA Blood Cholesterol Guidelines as first line lipid therapy for both high risk secondary prevention patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MORE»

VIEWING HEART FAILURE AS INTERSTITIAL CANCER: DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC AVENUES
Spinale
Frank Spinale, M.D., Ph.D., University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA

In contrast to public perception, the morbidity and mortality as well as the resultant health care costs associated with chronic heart failure (HF) are increasing and arguably reaching epidemic proportions, but improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this disease have not been forthcoming. MORE»

GI PROTEIN AS POTENTIAL TARGET FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION
Srivastava
Madhu B. Anand-Srivastava, Ph.D., Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

Guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G proteins) play an important role in the regulation of a variety of physiological functions including blood pressure through the activation of different effectors. We have previously shown an overexpression of inhibitory G proteins (Gialpha proteins) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and other models of hypertensive rats. MORE»

CARDIAC FIBROSIS IN HEART FAILURE
Taylor
Andrew J. Taylor, Ph.D., Alfred Hospital and Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia

Myocardial fibrosis is a fundamental event in the development of cardiac failure, and is a common feature in all patients with advanced cardiac failure regardless of the aetiology of cardiomyopathy. Increasing myocardial fibrosis results in progressive deterioration of myocardial function, with more extensive myocardial fibrosis identified histologically in the hearts of patients with advanced heart failure. MORE»

 

STRATEGIES FOR PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS IN PATIENTS WITH POLYVASCULAR DISEASE
Tomaru
Takanobu Tomaru, M.D., Toho University Sakura Hospital, Japan

Patients with severe carotid arterial sclerosis or those with polyvascular disease (PVD ) are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Ultra-sonography(US) is very useful for detection of PVD and we investigated usefulness of US and prognosis of patients with PVD or those with severe carotid arteriosclerosis. MORE»

UPDATE ON THE TREATMENT OF THE CHRONIC TOTAL OCCLUSION
Uretsky
Barry Uretsky, M.D., University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA

A key goal in treating obstructive coronary disease is complete revascularization (CR). Multiple observational and registry studies have suggested the value of CR in maximizing survival, minimizing long-term adverse cardiac events, and improving the quality of life. MORE»

SCREENING FOR CVD IN DIABETES: EVIDENCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Wong
Nathan D. Wong, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

The ACC/AHA released evidence-based guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment, lifestyle, obesity, and cholesterol management. The risk assessment guideline recommended a new “Pooled Cohort Equations” calculator to estimate 10-year and lifetime risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD), and other measures-- premature family history of CVD, C-reactive protein, ankle brachial index, and coronary calcium scores to further stratify risk and inform the treatment decision. MORE»

ZHANG’S PHENOMENON (HIS ELECTROGRAM ALTERNANS) AND A NEW MODEL OF ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE DUAL PATHWAY CONDUCTION
ZhangYouhua Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, NY, USA

Zhang’s phenomenon (originally His electrogram alternans), a new index of dual pathway atrioventricular (AV) node conduction, indicates that there are dual inputs rather than a final common pathway from the AV node into the His bundle. MORE»


 

 

 

 

 

 


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